Sheng Chou Yang is a Taipan from People's Republic of China, and a Chinese Minister of State. The leader of a cabal (i.e. a secret society) in Beijing, and the son of a Taipan from Mao Zedong's era. According to McAllister, he was recognised by some scouts sent out from the Central Committee several years ago (before the events of this novel took place) at the Fudan University in Shanghai (coincidentally, Fudan University is where Mr Liang, an assistant manager at a hotel in the Kowloon studied). He was well-educated, having a firm grasp of Western economics and an extremely competent understanding of the English language. Sheng Chou Yang undertook graduate study at the London School of Economics. Seen as a co-operative person by outsiders, a person who helps people finds agreements, compromises etc; described by McAllister as an 'avowed Marxist where the centralised state is concerned, but with a healthy respect for capitalistic profits'. Thirty years before the events of the Bourne Supremacy, his last known location was in Taiwan; implied to be his birthplace (incidentally, the main headquarters of the Kuomintang was in Taipei, Taiwan). He left Taiwan for his father's homeland. A notable figure who implemented many of the PRC's new trade policies. Secretly, however, he was planning to disrupt Hong Kong to the point that the mainland took over. He hired an assassin (a former British Royal Commando and escapee of a mental institution, the illegitimate son of a British revolutionary under the command of Bernard Montgomery by the name of Alcott-Price) to eliminate all of his opponents inside the Communist Party, with the first target being the Vice Premier of the PRC (killed in a shootout at a cabaret club near the Golden Mile). The assassin used the legend of Jason Bourne as his cover, and hid Sheng's true intention by framing Bourne, as the legend of Bourne was still acknowledged and feared in Southeast Asia. Sheng planned to invade Hong Kong; this colony was currently under British control (they had signed a 99-year lease) and this was a dangerous threat to the world's political stability. As the most powerful person in People's Republic, Sheng hid his true identity as a rogue Kuomintang taipan, and became a megalomaniac. Sheng attented trade conferences in Peking in the late seventies with then-Undersecetary of State Edward Newington McAllister (promoted to chairman of the National Security Agency following the events of the Bourne Supremacy), who was in awe of him, describing Sheng as his counterpart. Sheng created a ritual to kill anyone who failed him. Bourne saw it by himself and described it as "prophet" and "monster" in the same time. He became enraged when Sheng was unable to listen to a woman's refutal (the wife of a high-ranking member of the People's Security Forces, a soldier risking his life infiltrating their anti-communist opponents in the south), killing her brutally in cold blood (she was suspected of being a traitor).
Philip D'Anjou, alias Echo, Bourne's mentor in Medusa, provoked Sheng, spitting in his face and angering him, knowing his own death was inevitable. Sheng tried to get information more from Echo, but his egocentric and obnoxious behaviour didn't allow him. Sheng killed Echo with a ceremonial sword he used to behead those he deemed 'traitors'. Angry when his mentor was killed, Bourne got out from his cover and shot him, using chaos and an explosion that he created. Sheng summoned his own army as his cover from being shot. Bourne ran away after he got the assassin.
In the ending of The Bourne Supremacy (novel), Bourne shouted out all of the names of Sheng's victims, killing him soon thereafter when McAllister failed to kill Sheng, thus fulfilling his promise to D'Anjou.
Although described as a megalomaniac, he was a caring father. He loved his wife and daughter, and described them as angels.